Vol 10, No 1

Table of Contents

  1. Research Article
    A History of U.S.S.R. Encroachment of Afghanistan and the Developments in U.S. Foreign Policy PDF
    Ali Imran, Dong Xiaochuan
    The study of "A History of U.S.S.R Encroachment on Afghanistan and the Developments in U.S Foreign Policy" will examine the significant point towards Afghan internal situation, particularly towards the Afghanistan's political situation, Soviet initial reluctant policies towards Afghanistan and eventually rapid changes in U.S.S.R policy in the form of encroachment on Afghanistan. Furthermore, this imperative study will evaluate the U.S foreign policy towards Soviet encroachment on Afghanistan, revenge to Soviet Union on Vietnam War, use of CIA for aiding to Afghan insurgents and the key role of U.S decision makers.  Finally, we will discuss the U.S winning points of this US-Soviet Cold War. This study has been distributed in three main parts, first part of study will discuss about the Afghanistan's internal and political situation, second part of study will evaluate the Soviet's initial reluctant policies towards Afghanistan and further discussion about the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. U.S interests towards Central Asia, U.S foreign policy towards U.S.S.R encroachment of Afghanistan and critical steps in U.S foreign policy will be discussed in the third part of this study and furthermore, in the third part, we will discuss about the Brazanki's interview in which he accepted the U.S hidden role in Cold War and supporting Afghanistan's insurgents against the U.S.S.R.

  2. Research Article
    What Are the Academic Emotions of Intern Pre-teachers? PDF
    Ching-Sheue FU
    Pekrun, Goetz, and Titz (2002) believed that emotions generated during learning are academic emotions. Intern pre-teachers are positioned between students and teachers. Learning environments for interns are different from classrooms. This study summarized positive and negative emotions from intern diaries and weekly diaries of 25 intern pre-teachers using content analysis. Then the data from another 47 intern pre-teachers were used for verification. The results show that intern pre-teachers had 8 positive academic emotions, including happiness, delight, joy, surprise, relief, pride, hopefulness, and gratefulness, and 6 negative ones, including anger, harassment, worry, nervousness, fear, and anxiety. The main source of positive academic emotions was "children counseling", while that of negative academic emotions was their "insufficient professional abilities".