Vol 20 (2021)

Table of Contents

  1. Research Article
    Effects of Covid-19 Pandemic on Religious Activities and Faith of Worshippers in Kenya; A Case Study of Narok Town, Kenya PDF
    Sambu Alice, Kweingoti Reuben, Cherotich Mary Gabriel, Abdalla Hamadi Salimin
    The novel covid-19 pandemic led to change in lifestyles and other social activities including religious gatherings. In Kenya, the government restricted attendance of worship places in March, 2020 to help curb the spread of covid-19. This study sought to determine the impact of this restriction on the members faith and activities towards their religions. A descriptive survey was carried out in Narok town, as a representative of other parts of the country. Questionnaire and interview guide as well as observation were used for data collection. The study found out that majority of the members still had strong faith in their religious doctrines and leaders. About half of the respondents were still actively engaged in other religious activities such as reading holy books and following weekly sermons on media. However, there was a significant difference in most religious activities carried out by worshippers before and after the pandemic. Radio and television were the most exploited media of transmitting weekly sermons. A good proportion of the respondents were afraid that continuous absenteeism from worship places would significantly alter their faith.

  2. Research Article
    Influence of Chaos and Order of Life System on Education PDF
    Peng Haiyan

    This paper mainly discusses that life system is a complex structure of chaos and order. The order of life is supported by replication of inherited genes and conversion of energy, while the chaos is due to loss of energy and inevitable genetic mutation. In face of lively student, we should not only follow the linear rules of education, but also respect the individual created by nature.

  3. Research Article
    Research on Judicial Review of Arrest in China PDF
    Yahong Wang
    The arrest and detention of suspects are the most severe criminal coercive measures. In order to protect the rights of citizens from illegal infringements and prevent the abuse of power by investigative agencies, the application of arrest and detention should be subject to judicial review. The review agency should be neutral and impartial. In China, the review of arrest and detention has strong administrative characteristics. First, the People's Procuratorate is responsible for reviewing arrest and detention, which is not wholly neutral as a public prosecution agency. Second, the procuratorate's review and approval of the arrest only passed written materials, which violated the rhetoric principle. Finally, the implementation of the integrated approach of arrest and detention lacks the court's participation and supervision. In the process of improving arrest review in China, judges should be responsible for review and supervision, hearing procedures should be implemented, and the review model should be litigated.

  4. Research Article
    A Theoretical Framework on Minority Rights under International Law: Regional Protection & Modern Initiatives PDF
    Md. Mahfuzur Rahman
    Rising incidents of oppression on the minority group is an increasing concern all around the world. State practice has been inconsistent and incoherent so far as protection of minority rights is concerned. Some States have adopted generous policies not only in recognising the existence of minorities but also in protecting their cultural and linguistic identity. International law has historically found it difficult to provide firm guidelines in defining 'minorities'. However this paper has offered a theoretical framework for defining the concept of ‘minority’ and here a comprehensive analysis has been shown on the substantive rights of the minorities which includes their right to life and physical existence, right to religious, cultural and linguistic autonomy etc. In this analysis it is seen that The Genocide Convention has not come into operation and a number of States have not adopted any specific measures and large scale violation of human rights highlights the need for a permanent international criminal court. This study focuses on the modern initiatives in International Law and regional protection of minority rights. Recognition and authorisation of such rights form an essential element of the concept of autonomy and the role of Working Group on Minorities to eradicate some of the criticisms regarding the weaknesses existent in the practical realisation and implementation of the Declaration. This study also shows some instances of violation of minority rights due to lack of balance between international law and domestic laws of Bangladesh which firmly put emphasis on to acknowledge the international commitments by the states.